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What string type and what tension is best for spin?

Best regards,

There are many factors that create spin; string type and gauge, tension, string pattern, and obviously swing path and speed are the major contributors.
As far as tension, the type of swing you have will have a lot to do with how tight you will want to string your racquet to maximize spin. If you have a generally flatter stroke, a lower tension will tend to produce more spin. If you have a very pronounced high-to-low topspin swing path, tighter tensions will allow the ball to interact with the strings more rather than sitting in the string bed longer. (Dwell time.) Thinner strings produce more spin as well.

With the advent of poly strings today, some players, myself included, use 18 gauge string. Polys tend to last much longer than synthetic conventional strings, (multifilament or monofilament), so you can get almost the same longevity with 17 and 18 gauge strings that you would get out of conventional 16 gauge string and get more spin/control in the process. 

There is an argument that an open string pattern, (16 x 20) grips the ball more than a closed string pattern, (18 x 21). I've found that this may or may not be true as a closed string pattern also creates more friction as more strings interact with the ball. So the jury is still out in my research! My suggestion is to try a thin gauge string at a couple different tensions to find which combination provides you with the desired spin based on your swing type.
Good luck!  
David W. Smith


I play USTA, Men's Nationals, 65's. I notice several of the top players use extra large heads. Maybe 125 to 137 square inches ...the Big a Bubba, etc.

What are the advantages.  What are the disadvantages

Thank you,
Bob Begelman

As we get older several factors often favor larger head racquets for players. The advantages include a larger hitting area, greater power with less swing speed, and generally, a little easier on the arm.
Because large head racquets elongate the string bed in the hitting zone, players find that they get more zip on the ball producing more power. These large head racquets are usually designed to give players who have short strokes, more power. (Not necessarily more control, however!)
The best advice I can offer is to try out several of these larger head racquets and see how they feel and respond to your game and swing type. You may find, as you have seen among your peers, that you indeed can benefit from moving into one of these larger head frames.
Good luck! 
David W. Smith


Good to see Jim McLennan is getting back to those serving essentials. Apart from yourself and Doug (King) there’s only one other coach who showed me how. My 12 year old grandson bought me an hour’s tennis tune up with Gilles Elseneer (highest ATP rating 97) for my birthday. Easy, here’s how it’s done said Gilles. And he threw the ball up at the ceiling with a baseball style throwing motion. A 2 second serve lesson.

Your last video. Why do guys find it easier to use this throwing motion than gals? And before that, whatever happened to the Trophy Position in your continuous serving motion? Another myth?



Great question and one I will soon do a article about. What follows is a hunch. First, tennis coaches should all specialize so that there are serving coaches forehand coaches and more such that if a developing player has an excellent coach at some aspects but not on the serve that suggests an issue.

Second, the serve is very difficult to teach and truly, master coaches do not agree on methods or technique though this same group would agree across the board on the forehand.

Third, many of the women who would become professionals appear so at a very early age when it is easier to hit groundies than develop rhythm on the serve and then it may become overlooked.

Finally, and this may apply to Europe more than the US, in soccer dominated cultures the overhand throwing motion is not as readily learned or picked up. Some many years ago in a meeting with Martina Navratilova in San Francisco after she had finished practicing with two female all americans from Stanford 2 on 1, she warmed down with some football tossing and it was fascinating to see how poorly the two girls threw.

A template I use when teaching throwing — I begin by asking players to throw a few and then I ask, "Does it feel like pushing or pulling? Nearly all the poor throwers respond, "pushing."



I liked your article on the importance of the toss to the quality of a player's serve (Low Toss, High Toss, What difference Does it Make?).  Just a couple points I wanted to add.  

  1. First of all, the bio-mechanics gurus seem to say that the toss is most effectively tossed approximately 18 inches to 2 feet above the contact point.  However, I tend to agree with you that this aspect of the serve is largely stylistic as opposed to being a fundamental element of the serve. Again, I think you are quite right in comparing it to the serve stance a player uses.  Clearly, throughout history, players have produced high quality serves with platform and pinpoint stances as  well as with low, medium and high tosses.
  1. When working with beginning and intermediate players, I have found it to be less problematic for the players when they avoid extremes in the toss, which tend to create timing issues that should not be the focus of their practice at this stage of development.  Likewise, learning to serve using a slide step and a pinpoint stance creates an unnecessary balance issue that new players simply do not need at this stage of development.
  1. As a stylistic element, I think it makes sense to allow players to experiment with these elements once they have a sound foundation with the serve.  Although stylistic elements of the serve do not prevent a player from developing an elite stroke, different players will find one or the other of these options more conducive to their long-term development.  I know I always think the low toss, quick twitch motion Dolgopolov employs is a perfect fit for his style and personality.   

Anyway, keep up the good work,


I can tell, you have never seen the not so- short Herculean  Lew Hoad play tennis or even the feline Pancho Gonzales or again the handsome and athletic Tony Trabert.  The power, the speed, the strategic intelligence and the conditioning of these tennis players were memorable for those who actually witnessed their matches.

They played five setters with scores ending like 31-29 in the fifth set ! ( No tie-breaker in those days ! No medical pause either.  No one had an arm like the Laver’s left arm and wrist, even Serena with her artificially developed limbs. The abuse of growth hormones should disqualified professional athletes, whoever they are !

Forget hard court which gives an advantage to not so-good players who just hit or serve hard, play on clay or grass. 

Dr. Jean-luc Bordeaux

Dr. Jean-luc Bordeaux

I have seen them and they were all great champions, but the pace of the game was slower back in the day.

Thanks for your comments,


Thanks for Doug King's intriguing article about the role of the wrist in the serve. You solved a mystery that attacked me when I watched several matches of Stefan Edberg on youtube. I thought: 'What is Stefan doing with his backswing? It looks so weird.'

But as you see, he does EXACTLY at the beginning of his serve what you describe in your video. The side of the racket he is going to hit with, is pointing up, then sideways, and reaches to 'ready to throw'-phase in a total different way than you would imagine. He is supinating his wrist! And we all know what tremendous spin Stefan put on his ball.

Kind regards,
Jerome Inen

Hi Jerome,

That is a wonderful clip of Edberg. Thank you for that. You can clearly see how supinated the wrist is (much like Raonic, who might be even more exaggerated, at least at the start). Edberg had such an amazing kick on his serve, which he would follow up with such blanketing presence at the net, and then perfectly placed volleys. What a challenge to try to break him for even the best of returners. Thanks also for the nice comments. I look forward to your next piece in TennisOne.

All the best,


I found the article (Forearm lag and double bend) and Coach Smith's instructional videos to be very helpful.  I have been struggling to develop a consistent forehand — especially against harder hitting opponents - and was able to identify several corrections from the articles and videos to work on that had not connected with me mentally from other sources.

I had been trying to incorporate a loose wrist and snap or rolling of the wrist that was giving me all kinds of control and consistency problems.

I am also trying to develop a shorter back swing which seems to be more likely to come from the type of stroke explained by Dave — which seems to keep the elbow in close to the body rather than by straighten the arm on the backswing and through the shot.

Thank you,

Bob Alderman

Hi Bob,

Thank you for the note and sharing your insights to hitting your own forehand better.

Yes, keeping things simple within the execution of any stroke will help create a more reliable and repeatable swing pattern. As with your forehand, extraneous movements will not only detract from consistency, but as you play opponents who hit harder shots, you will indeed find yourself struggle to get the ball back in play--let alone hit some effective shot yourself.

Examine the many video clips found here at TennisOne and you should start to recognize the commonalities of the top forehands. These forehands are not unreachable. It is just a matter of recognizing what they are doing, emulating the movements with some level of accuracy of motion, and then drill the stroke so it becomes automatic and the timing and rhythm become natural.

Thanks again for writing!

David W. Smith
Senior Editor, TennisOne


Enjoyed Doug King’s volley video. What is he using (recommending) for grip pressure? Sometimes it looked very firm, sometimes it looked much softer. Thanks!

Richard Roux

Hi Richard,

First let me express my thanks for your comments. In regard to your question about grip pressure on the volley, the timing and application of pressure through the hand will vary greatly with the type of ball that is being played. The grip should always be quite relaxed coming into contact (almost as though you are going to play a drop volley) and then just before contact pressure will be applied in different ways. If pressure is applied more forcefully (tighter) on contact, the racquet will accelerate more quickly and the ball with shoot off the racquet faster and with more pace. The subsequent drive or “hold” on the ball will be shorter (less extension to the target and “follow through”).

Going into contact, if the pressure is applied more gradually and somewhat lighter, the ball will tend to push back on the racquet more and therefore will have less spring off of the racquet. This will give the ability to drive or guide the ball a bit more and in many cases this will be evidenced with a bit more extension towards the target, or a longer follow-through.

I hope that helps.

Again, thanks for writing,


Just read David Smiths article on The Two-handed Forehand Revisited.
My daughter is 3 and because she is so small and her racquet was a little big for her I taught her to hold the racquet with 2 hands. I didn't really give any more thought to this as at the time it seemed logical and she seemed to do it well. She has just started taking 1/2 hour tennis lessons each week on top of time I spend with her practicing at home.
I noticed at her last 2 tennis lessons the coach has got her hitting with 1 hand.   I asked the coach about this and he said that the double handed forehand is too restrictive and not too many top players do well using it.

Even though I'm sure he knows more about tennis than I do I am still not entirely convinced about this as she doesn't hit  anywhere near as well as she was with the 2 handed forehand.
Should I just let him get on with the job or ask him to go back to teaching her using the double handed forehand?
I have attached a link to a very short video. If you have a moment could you please take a look at it.
Paul Klicin

Hi Paul,
Thank you for sending me your questions and video of your daughter hitting tennis balls, (and enjoying it!)
At 3, it isn't too early to develop the fundamental swing pattern as long as she enjoys the short sessions. (I only spent no more than 5 min every few days developing my daughter's swing when she was about 5.)
Please be sure to look at my series, "Training an 8-Year Old" on TennisOne as it will give you many drills, progressions and tools to use with your own daughter. Also, if you don't have my book, Coaching Mastery, this would be an excellent guide for all the progressions, drills, and variations that would help you. (available at all Barnes and Noble stores, Amazon, and as well as
Ask your pro if the two-handed forehand was so restrictive, why did Marion Bartoli win Wimbledon this past year? Obviously, it CAN be taken to the highest levels, and there are several other top players using a two handed forehand. (Peng Shaui, Akiko Morigami, and a number of others.)
Even if later, (and I'm talking ten or twelve years later), your daughter, after learning the two-handed forehand, wanted to switch, it is very easy to do...and, the two-hander helps kids (and adults), learn to move better, shorten their backswing naturally, create a repeatable reliable swing path much faster, and hit with better topspin with consistency.
For your daughter, I suggest two quick things I noticed: try to have her keep her front foot down during the follow-through; also, have her switch her hands to make it a true two-handed forehand. (Instead of a left-handed backhand as she is doing now.)
Finally, have her keep her left elbow in near her body and let the right arm extend out and then over her shoulder.
If you do these things, she will have a solid foundation with her natural coordination. I hope this helps. Please keep me posted on her development over the next couple years!
Good luck!
Dave Smith
Senior Editor, TennisOne


Just my few (annual) words of feedback thanking Dave for his sound advice on progressing your tennis  to higher levels in a structured manner. The big question about online learning (and I have followed a few of your online courses) is can you improve without being followed by a regular pro.

The answer I think is yes, but the two key parameters are perseverance and time. Take my serve.  I've followed advice from Jeff, Jim and Doug for 2 years. A year ago I despaired about making a difference, then about 3 months ago, Doug's advice just kicked in. I must have doubled my service speeds, lot more slice, spin and kick is the next challenge. I'm 69.

With a full time coach (like you guys) I could have done this in a few months. Online, trying to fit this into my 3 times a week match sessions, you need to be persistent, forget about winning as the first goal, and give yourself 2/3 years.

You know I'm not sure the local coaches appreciate my telling them what I want them to do (based upon your techniques). I see that your tuition is a lot more analytical and profound..and I play in Justine's club over here.

Take the concept of split step. I have never heard a coach say this ( in French) over here over 20 years. I watched a young coach training
a talented 8 year old at the club last night. He made this kid go through the motions of standstill to hitting the ball over 20 times. Never a mention of split, just an OK when he got  the ball back hard and firm.

Anyway, good luck to you all. One of these days I'll come back and ask you if the online tennis  training business model is a success — I can see that you have huge investments in website, video recording and promotion. But does it pay?


Hi Terry,
Thank you for taking the time to share feedback on our programs as well as how you personally have gained from each.
While every teaching pro is different and has a different skills-set based on diversity of experience, training, and education, I believe that each pro is working towards what they feel is in their student's best interest. Unfortunately, there are some pros who are either ignorant or stubborn in their openness to learn more from others or even take the time to attend lectures, read books or study what others are saying within resources such as and other on-line formats.
Because of this, we see limitations in many pros; I've seen many examples of this within my 40 years of teaching tennis. Many pros, because of these self-imposed limitations, can only teach within a certain, limited skill-set...much like a used car salesman who only has a limited number of cars to sell on a lot: they will tell you only what will help them sell their car…not necessarily what the consumer wants or needs.
With the power of the programs that are now available through, (and yes, we are heavily invested in creating the most useful, informative, and cutting-edge methodology that can be helpful to all who partake!), you can take so much information into your lessons, clinics or workshops, and evaluate what the teaching pro is telling you. You can question some advice and get much more pertinent feedback from the pro because he or she will know more of what you understand. Also, it can help you determine if a pro is worth his or her fees! It is like going to the car dealership with all the car-facts before the salesman starts his spiel!
Regardless of whether our programs "pay" for themselves, the goal of TennisOne and all of our staff writers, is to help individuals just like yourself, reach a far greater level of understanding. Personally, I know that individuals most often fail to reach their potential not because of a so-called lack of athleticism, but a lack of true understanding. Because tennis balls can be hit a multitude of ways over a net, there can be a misleading sense of progress when a player successfully makes the ball go over the net. Most of the ways a player can indeed hit the ball over the net will generally stagnate a player at lower levels once they want to increase the effect, gain more consistency, or defend more effective shots by opponents. Thus, if the way I first hit a successful shot is not conducive to becoming a more "skilled player", then that success is faulty in terms of being a stepping stone to more prolific play. In other words, you will indeed have to 'change' your methods at some point…and this is difficult.
You mentioned it took you a year or more before you grasped the information and translated that into more successful serves. You are the exception as many players would give up on the necessary patience to master a new method or technique. However, as you have found, there are indeed BETTER ways to execute shots, ways that will give you the ability to reach higher skill levels and competitive play.
I hope your success will inspire others to stay with their goals; persistence does indeed pay off IF players will take the time to understand what they are trying to achieve, and work hard towards that goal. And at, we are here to help provide the foundation of understanding ALL the principles related to achieving those goals.
Thanks again, Terry, for writing and sharing your thoughts.
David W. Smith
Senior Editor,


I met Maureen Connolly in 1964 or 65 when I was 10 or 11. She came to the St. Petersburg Tennis Club to give a clinic for Wilson Sporting Goods. Jack Staton, the many time national age group champion and Florida Wilson rep. was the host for the event. She mainly talked about tennis and demonstrated strokes. I remember her saying that it didn't matter much what you did on the back swing, but that you needed to swing through the strike zone or hitting area. I was fortunate and honored to have been allowed to hit with her one on one for a minute. In our last rally I hit a ball and rushed the net and put away a volley, which she probably fed right to me. The spectators watching had a laugh seeing this little boy hit against her like I did. I'll never forget that day.

Thanks Lil Mo!
Sam Vuille


Just wanted to let you know how much I enjoyed your well-written TennisOne appreciation piece, "Remembering 'Mo' -- First Woman's Grand Slam Champion." Regarding the ignorance and apathy of some young players, I suggest the USTA give leading juniors the history book, We HAVE Come A Long Way by Billie Jean King.

Paul Fein

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